The worms that excrete feces after eating dung and the chemicals that are released from the body of the earthworm are called ground worm compost or vermicompost. This is a simple method of making excellent organic manure suitable for use with 1-month-old stale dung. This fertilizer can be used in all types of planting areas. Vermicompost boosts water-holding capability in soil and enhances ventilation, as a result, the fertility of the soil increases. Below is a detailed discussion on how to make vermicompost very easily.
How to make vermicompost at home
Eudrilus eugeni and Eisenia fetida are preferred for making high-quality vermicompost. In Western countries, the use of Eudrilus fetida is more common. Eudrilus eugeni earthworms are more tolerant. It is much more tolerant of various organic pesticides like Neem shell, Mahua shell, Gliricidia, Eupatorium. The nature of earthworms varies with different types of soils, so it is an important step to create organic manure with the help of local earthworms. There is no need to bring earthworms from outside. Worm manure can be produced by breeding earthworms in large holes, tanks or concrete round pot-rings, or any large container.
Main ingredients require for worm manure or vermicompost manure
Characteristics of earthworms
In order to make earthworm manure, it is necessary to look at some of their characteristics in order to select specific species of earthworms. Ability to survive in both winter and summer climates; Ability to take food from all kinds of organic matter; The earthworm must be of a gigantic nature, meaning it must have the ability to eat a lot; Living in harmony with other species of earthworms; Become active as soon as they receive organic products or in a short period of time and collect food from there; Ability to resist disease and adapt to adverse conditions; Propagate rapidly and cause physical growth.
Ways to collect local earthworms
Identify soils where earthworms are visible. Dissolve 500 gms of molasses and 500 gms of fresh dung in 2 liters of water and sprinkle well on the soil surface in an area of 1 m length and 1 m width. The place should be covered with a lump of straw and an old sack. Water should be sprinkled continuously for 20 to 30 days. This is the place where many baby earthworms will be born at once, which can be easily collected and used. Local red earthworms can even be collected from the bark of rotten banana trees.
Making holes and making fertilizer
Holes can be made as needed in the backyard or garden or field. One or two holes can be made or tanks of any size can be made with bricks and lime-surkhi, including a place for water to flow. Holes 2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.75 m high are ideal for this purpose. Water can be stored in a temporary wall along the middle of the hole to protect the earthworms from ants. Four-celled holes or tanks are constructed to facilitate the movement of earthworms from the fully organic manure cell to the pre-processed waste cell.
Animal feces – dung, poultry dung, goat, and sheep feces. Dung is the best of these. Chicken manure contains a lot of calcium and phosphate which in excess can damage earthworms, so it is better to use it mixed with straw, soil, or dung.
Agricultural waste – crop residues left after harvest such as paddy and wheat straw, mug, kalai, mustard wheat husk, husk, vegetable husk, herbs, sugarcane husk. Sludge after dung gas; urban waste and industrial waste such as food processing plant waste.
Ingredients that should not be used are – onion peel, dried leaves, peppers, spices, and acid or acid-producing wastes, tomato, tamarind, lemon, raw or cooked fish meat residue. Also inorganic materials such as stone, brick pieces, sand, and polythene.
Site selection and preparation procedures
In order to make earthworm fertilizer, first, you have to choose a shady high place, where there is no direct sunlight and a good ventilation system. A tent must be given upstairs. Earthenware pots, wooden boxes, cement rings, pots, or in the direct soil earthworms fertilizer can be produced. There should be a hole in the bottom of the pot so that water does not accumulate in the pot in any way. At the bottom of the basin or pot, 3 inch or 7.5 cm pieces of brick, stone crumbs should be placed. It is covered with 1-inch core sand so that water does not accumulate. The bed is made of bedding or organic matter that is easily digested. Then partially decomposed organic matter (food) should be spread on the bed. If the amount of water in the food is less, water should be sprinkled so that it contains 50-60 percent water. Adult earthworms should be released at an average of 10 pieces per kg of organic matter. The worms will settle for a while and then go into the food within a couple of minutes. Then the organic matter should be completely covered with wet burlap sacks. It can also be covered with coconut leaves instead of sacks. Occasionally light water should be sprinkled. Care should be taken- not to give extra water. After leaving it like this for 2 months, compost manure will be made. When dark brown, tea-like grains are spread on the upper layer of the organic matter, it is assumed that the fertilizer has been made. There is no stench at this time.
Organic matter, dung, soil, and farm manure fixed ratio (6: 3: 0.5: 0.5) i.e. 6% organic waste, 3% raw manure, 1/2 part soil, and 1/2 part farm manure should be placed for 15-20 days for partial decomposition before feeding in composting containers. After a certain period of time, the mixture is used as earthworm food. Generally, a hole 1 m long, 1 m wide, and 3 cm deep require 40 kg of food. One thousand earthworms can be applied in such a hole. It takes more time to compost at the beginning (60-70 days). Later it was completed in only 40 days. This is because of the number of both bacteria and earthworms increases. According to the data, 1 kg or 1000 earthworms can make 10 kg cast or compost in 60-70 days. One kg of earthworm can eat 5 kg of greens as food in a day. For that 40-50 percent humidity must be maintained. About 800-1000 earthworms weigh 1 kg. This amount of earthworm lays 2000-5000 eggs or cocoons per week. Full-grown earthworms are born in 6-7 weeks. Experience has shown that about 500 g of compost is obtained from 1 kg of raw dung. However, in the case of other agricultural wastes, 250 g of earthworm manure is obtained from 1 kg of raw material.
Preparation of fertilizer
Fertilizer is considered to be ready only when the substances become slightly crumbly and the color of the fertilizer turns dark brown. Will be granular, black, light, and bluish; Fertilizer preparation will be completed in 80-90 days. This can be understood by the presence of earthworms in the upper bed; Watering should be stopped 2-3 days before emptying the bed to separate the earthworms from the manure. As a result, about 80% of earthworms will go down; Worms can also be separated with a sieve. The earthworm and the little thick substance that will remain on top of the sieve will have to be thrown back into the hole where the process will start again. The manure smells like soil. Any bad odor proves that the digestion process is not over and the bacteria are working. Fungus-like or stinking means nitrogen is leaking out. If this happens then ventilation should be arranged and more fibrous material should be added and kept dry. Then the fertilizer has to be sifted and packaged; Watering in the first cell should be stopped in a two or four-cell system so that the earthworms move from one cell to another on their own where the suitable environment is maintained regularly.
Where to use earthworm manure or vermicompost manure
Vermicompost can be used in all types of vegetable fields to increase the yield of vegetables. Good yields are obtained by using this fertilizer in various orchards including paddy, wheat, jute. The use of this fertilizer increases soil fertility and increases aeration in the soil. Water holding capacity increases, soil toxicity is eliminated. As the microbiological functions of the soil increase, so does the ability of plants to purify nutrients from the soil. If you use this earthworm fertilizer, you can only use 1/2 part of the chemical fertilizer level. This fertilizer can be used in ponds to accelerate phytoplankton production and increase fish production.
Care should be taken while sifting so that the baby earthworm does not die. The baby earthworms should be left to make compost in the stale dung kept in the pit again. Worms should be kept away from ants, termites, cockroaches, chickens, rats, water, and insect bites. If necessary, mosquito nets should be used on the tub.
List of ingredients that can and cannot be used during vermi compost preparation
|Hair and fur||Butter|
|coffee grounds||Animal products|
|Stale bread||Dilute raw animal feces|
|Grass clippings||spine weeds|
|old herbs and spices||ink coated paper|
Effects on doses
Vermicompost can be used at any time on all types of crops. Vegetables and agricultural lands are used at the rate of 3-4 metric tons per hectare and fruit trees at the rate of 5-10 kg per plant. The amount used in flower gardens is 500 to 600 kg per hectare of land. Field observations show that the use of earthworm manure has increased the yield of field crops by 20 to 25 percent. The quality and taste of vegetables increase with increasing yield. Even many old fruit trees that did not bear fruit have doubled their yields. The trend of using organic manure to maintain the health and fertility of the land is increasing. People are much more aware of this now. Therefore, the production and use of vermicompost are going to play a valuable role in the coming days.
Frequently asked questions
What are the steps of vermicompost?
Step 1: Buy or prepare a worm compost bin.
Step 2: Earthworms need to be collected.
Step 3: Select the place for preparing earthworm manure.
Step 4: Inside the earthenware, wooden box, or cement ring: spread the whole straw or easily decomposable organic matter for earthworm bedding.
Step 5: Paddy and wheat straw, mug, kalai, mustard, wheat husk, vegetable peels, herbs, sugarcane husk, dung gas sediment, or slurry should be given as food for earthworms.
step 6: Leave worms on the food.
step 7: Regular watering should be done and care should be taken to protect earthworms from harmful insects.
Step 8: Separate the worms from the vermicompost by sieving and apply the vermicompost to the crop.
What are the materials needed in vermicomposting?
1. Selected earthworms.
2. Moisten soil suitable for earthworm habitat.
3. Shady environment.
4. Shelter to protect from rain and sun.
5. Worm compost bin.
6. Safe habitat made of bricks, stones, and sand.
7. Earthworm food rich in organic matter and easily digestible.
8. Jute sacks and sieves.
How long does it take to make vermicompost?
Increasing the use of organically made earthworm manure can lead to the development of chemical fertilizer-free and environment-friendly agriculture. This will reduce the cost of cultivation as well as the risk of health damage. Hopefully, farmers are increasingly interested in using homemade natural organic fertilizers, especially earthworm fertilizers, as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. There are many consumers who, if they can be sure that chemical fertilizers have not been used in the production of such agricultural products, are not reluctant to pay more than the market price. With this in mind, many have resorted to the production of environmentally friendly fertilizers like earthworm manure and have become financially viable.